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Wheat meal and flour من القمح الى الدقيق

يحتوى على ما يخص التحليلات و الاختبارات التى تجرى على القمح وتحديد جودته

المشرف: جودة الدقيق

صورة العضو الشخصية
Osama Badr
مؤسس المنتدى
مؤسس المنتدى
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اشترك في: الخميس مايو 03, 2018 2:46 pm
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Wheat meal and flour من القمح الى الدقيق

مشاركةبواسطة Osama Badr » الثلاثاء أغسطس 14, 2018 11:05 pm

Wheat meal and flourMeal and flour can be made from various grains, including wheat, rye, oats, corn, rice and barley. The most commonly used grain is wheat.

Written by
Wouter Burggraaf
Monday 25 July 2016
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The wheat grain consists for 85% of endosperm (flour body), 13% bran (various layers) and 2% germ.

The chemical composition of the wheat grain is:

59% carbohydrates (starches and sugars)
14% moisture
13% protein
10% of dietary fiber
2% fat
2% minerals
Different types of meal and flour can be produced from wheat grains. The criteria for flour is that it can only contain the endosperm; meal also consist of bran parts. Whole meal has a very coarse structure, because it contains the entire husk of the grain, namely the bran. In contrast, Super Patent flour is of a very fine structure, containing only the endosperm. The similarities between the different types of flour is the fact that the germ is always removed. This is due to the fact that the high fat content of the germ speeds up the oxidative spoiling, resulting in a rancid smell and flavor.

The flour quality, and especially the protein content, is determining for its applications. For instance, flour with a low protein content (below 10%) is suitable for use in confectionery products, such as biscuit, and cake. Flour with a protein content of between 10 and 15% is suitable for use in bread. An even higher protein content (higher than 15%) is used in the production of rusk.

The protein content of the flour is determined by the degree of grinding. The core of the grain contains the most proteins; towards the outside of the grain, the protein contents becomes gradually lower. The husk layers virtually do not contain any protein. The higher the degree of milling, the higher the protein content of the meal. The skin layers contain virtually no more protein. So the higher the degree of milling, the higher the protein content of the flour.


كود: تحديد الكل

Wheat meal and flour
Meal and flour can be made from various grains, including wheat, rye, oats, corn, rice and barley. The most commonly used grain is wheat.

Written by
Wouter Burggraaf
Monday 25 July 2016
Share on LinkedIn
The wheat grain consists for 85% of endosperm (flour body), 13% bran (various layers) and 2% germ.

The chemical composition of the wheat grain is:

59% carbohydrates (starches and sugars)
14% moisture
13% protein
10% of dietary fiber
2% fat
2% minerals
Different types of meal and flour can be produced from wheat grains. The criteria for flour is that it can only contain the endosperm; meal also consist of bran parts. Whole meal has a very coarse structure, because it contains the entire husk of the grain, namely the bran. In contrast, Super Patent flour is of a very fine structure, containing only the endosperm. The similarities between the different types of flour is the fact that the germ is always removed. This is due to the fact that the high fat content of the germ speeds up the oxidative spoiling, resulting in a rancid smell and flavor.

The flour quality, and especially the protein content, is determining for its applications. For instance, flour with a low protein content (below 10%) is suitable for use in confectionery products, such as biscuit, and cake. Flour with a protein content of between 10 and 15% is suitable for use in bread. An even higher protein content (higher than 15%) is used in the production of rusk.

The protein content of the flour is determined by the degree of grinding. The core of the grain contains the most proteins; towards the outside of the grain, the protein contents becomes gradually lower. The husk layers virtually do not contain any protein. The higher the degree of milling, the higher the protein content of the meal. The skin layers contain virtually no more protein. So the higher the degree of milling, the higher the protein content of the flour.
Knowledge is a power
Keep on what you're reading of HOLY QURAN

صورة العضو الشخصية
Osama Badr
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مؤسس المنتدى
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اشترك في: الخميس مايو 03, 2018 2:46 pm
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Re: Wheat meal and flour من القمح الى الدقيق

مشاركةبواسطة Osama Badr » الثلاثاء أغسطس 14, 2018 11:06 pm

Meal and flour production process
Harvesting and threshing


The harvesting of wheat preferably takes place when the grain is sufficiently dry and the grass is properly matured. The harvest takes place during autumn. Threshing can damage the grains, especially when the moisture levels in the grains are low. The combine harvester has to be adjusted properly, ensuring as little grain damage as possible, but with sufficient threshing. Also impurities (like stem and leaf residues) should be avoided. The stems of the wheat plants can be processed into straw.


كود: تحديد الكل

Meal and flour production process
Harvesting and threshing
The harvesting of wheat preferably takes place when the grain is sufficiently dry and the grass is properly matured. The harvest takes place during autumn. Threshing can damage the grains, especially when the moisture levels in the grains are low. The combine harvester has to be adjusted properly, ensuring as little grain damage as possible, but with sufficient threshing. Also impurities (like stem and leaf residues) should be avoided. The stems of the wheat plants can be processed into straw.
Knowledge is a power
Keep on what you're reading of HOLY QURAN

صورة العضو الشخصية
Osama Badr
مؤسس المنتدى
مؤسس المنتدى
مشاركات: 585
اشترك في: الخميس مايو 03, 2018 2:46 pm
اتصال:

Re: Wheat meal and flour من القمح الى الدقيق

مشاركةبواسطة Osama Badr » الثلاثاء أغسطس 14, 2018 11:09 pm

Storage

First, the grains are stored. This is done in large silos, where dry air is blown through. This dry air is necessary because moisture content of the grain is usually on the high side. By lowering the moisture content below 14%, overheating and deterioration are prevented. Moreover, the brittleness and toughness of the grain can be adjusted, giving it the ideal characteristics for grinding.


كود: تحديد الكل

Storage
First, the grains are stored. This is done in large silos, where dry air is blown through. This dry air is necessary because moisture content of the grain is usually on the high side. By lowering the moisture content below 14%, overheating and deterioration are prevented. Moreover, the brittleness and toughness of the grain can be adjusted, giving it the ideal characteristics for grinding.
Knowledge is a power
Keep on what you're reading of HOLY QURAN

صورة العضو الشخصية
Osama Badr
مؤسس المنتدى
مؤسس المنتدى
مشاركات: 585
اشترك في: الخميس مايو 03, 2018 2:46 pm
اتصال:

Re: Wheat meal and flour من القمح الى الدقيق

مشاركةبواسطة Osama Badr » الثلاثاء أغسطس 14, 2018 11:11 pm

Cleaning

There are six purification steps to rid the grains of any impurities.

كود: تحديد الكل

Cleaning
There are six purification steps to rid the grains of any impurities.
Knowledge is a power
Keep on what you're reading of HOLY QURAN

صورة العضو الشخصية
Osama Badr
مؤسس المنتدى
مؤسس المنتدى
مشاركات: 585
اشترك في: الخميس مايو 03, 2018 2:46 pm
اتصال:

Re: Wheat meal and flour من القمح الى الدقيق

مشاركةبواسطة Osama Badr » الثلاثاء أغسطس 14, 2018 11:12 pm

Sieving

The grains are sieved, removing any coarse contaminants such as paper, sand, straw, husks and twigs.


كود: تحديد الكل

Sieving
The grains are sieved, removing any coarse contaminants such as paper, sand, straw, husks and twigs.
Knowledge is a power
Keep on what you're reading of HOLY QURAN

صورة العضو الشخصية
Osama Badr
مؤسس المنتدى
مؤسس المنتدى
مشاركات: 585
اشترك في: الخميس مايو 03, 2018 2:46 pm
اتصال:

Re: Wheat meal and flour من القمح الى الدقيق

مشاركةبواسطة Osama Badr » الثلاثاء أغسطس 14, 2018 11:21 pm

Magnet

A magnet is used to retrieve any iron particles from the grain. These iron particles are removed in order to guarantee the safety of the final product and to prevent damage to the machines, such as damage to the rollers in the milling process.


كود: تحديد الكل

Magnet
A magnet is used to retrieve any iron particles from the grain. These iron particles are removed in order to guarantee the safety of the final product and to prevent damage to the machines, such as damage to the rollers in the milling process.
Knowledge is a power
Keep on what you're reading of HOLY QURAN

صورة العضو الشخصية
Osama Badr
مؤسس المنتدى
مؤسس المنتدى
مشاركات: 585
اشترك في: الخميس مايو 03, 2018 2:46 pm
اتصال:

Re: Wheat meal and flour من القمح الى الدقيق

مشاركةبواسطة Osama Badr » الأربعاء أغسطس 15, 2018 9:31 pm

Separator (Aspirator)
During the third cleaning step in the separator, also called aspirator, both coarse materials (husks and strands) and fine particles (sand and dust) are removed. The grain is guided over two sieve screens. On top a sieve for coarse materials, and below a small sieve. The grain can fall through the course sieve; the small particles such as sand and dust will fall through the small sieve. What is left over passes through an upward stream of air, any remaining dust particles are sucked away with the air flow, while the grains are collected below.


كود: تحديد الكل

Separator (Aspirator)
During the third cleaning step in the separator, also called aspirator, both coarse materials (husks and strands) and fine particles (sand and dust) are removed. The grain is guided over two sieve screens. On top a sieve for coarse materials, and below a small sieve. The grain can fall through the course sieve; the small particles such as sand and dust will fall through the small sieve. What is left over passes through an upward stream of air, any remaining dust particles are sucked away with the air flow, while the grains are collected below.
Knowledge is a power
Keep on what you're reading of HOLY QURAN

صورة العضو الشخصية
Osama Badr
مؤسس المنتدى
مؤسس المنتدى
مشاركات: 585
اشترك في: الخميس مايو 03, 2018 2:46 pm
اتصال:

Re: Wheat meal and flour من القمح الى الدقيق

مشاركةبواسطة Osama Badr » الأربعاء أغسطس 15, 2018 9:32 pm

Destoner
During the fourth cleaning step, stones are removed using a destoner. A vibrating screen (sieve) carries the grains and any stones upwards. A powerful air stream lifts the grains up while the impurities remain on the vibrating screen and are disposed above.


كود: تحديد الكل

Destoner
During the fourth cleaning step, stones are removed using a destoner. A vibrating screen (sieve) carries the grains and any stones upwards. A powerful air stream lifts the grains up while the impurities remain on the vibrating screen and are disposed above.
Knowledge is a power
Keep on what you're reading of HOLY QURAN

صورة العضو الشخصية
Osama Badr
مؤسس المنتدى
مؤسس المنتدى
مشاركات: 585
اشترك في: الخميس مايو 03, 2018 2:46 pm
اتصال:

Wheat meal and flour من القمح الى الدقيق

مشاركةبواسطة Osama Badr » الأربعاء أغسطس 15, 2018 9:33 pm

Trieur (Triage)
The fifth cleaning step separates the different types of grains. In a trieur, a rotating drum with indentations in its sides, the cereals are rotated. The indentations are made to exactly catch the grains that have to be collected. Grains that do not fit exactly (being either too big or too small) drop from the slot. The desired grain kernels remain in place longer, and then fall into a collecting tray, which is a stationary part in the middle of the drum. The remaining grains are used for different products, for example, for another meal or flour type, or in the animal feed industry. The trieur is not used if a mix of different types of cereals is purposely made, because then this step would separate the grains again.


كود: تحديد الكل

Trieur (Triage)
The fifth cleaning step separates the different types of grains. In a trieur, a rotating drum with indentations in its sides, the cereals are rotated. The indentations are made to exactly catch the grains that have to be collected. Grains that do not fit exactly (being either too big or too small) drop from the slot. The desired grain kernels remain in place longer, and then fall into a collecting tray, which is a stationary part in the middle of the drum. The remaining grains are used for different products, for example, for another meal or flour type, or in the animal feed industry. The trieur is not used if a mix of different types of cereals is purposely made, because then this step would separate the grains again.
Knowledge is a power
Keep on what you're reading of HOLY QURAN

صورة العضو الشخصية
Osama Badr
مؤسس المنتدى
مؤسس المنتدى
مشاركات: 585
اشترك في: الخميس مايو 03, 2018 2:46 pm
اتصال:

Re: Wheat meal and flour من القمح الى الدقيق

مشاركةبواسطة Osama Badr » الأربعاء أغسطس 15, 2018 9:34 pm

Scouring
The final purification step takes place in the scouring machine. Here, the grains are beaten against the coarse side in a drum. Any impurities that were attached to the grain are removed in this way.


كود: تحديد الكل

Scouring
The final purification step takes place in the scouring machine. Here, the grains are beaten against the coarse side in a drum. Any impurities that were attached to the grain are removed in this way.
Knowledge is a power
Keep on what you're reading of HOLY QURAN


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