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food quality assurance

ما يخص امان وسلامة الغذاء

المشرف: عبد الرحمن الجارحي

عبد الرحمن الجارحي
مشرف
مشرف
مشاركات: 370
اشترك في: الجمعة مايو 04, 2018 1:00 am

food quality assurance

مشاركةبواسطة عبد الرحمن الجارحي » السبت يونيو 02, 2018 10:11 am

https://www.mediafire.com/file/xdrsnmr9a43t7ca/Food+Quality+Assurance.pdf


Contents
Chapter 1
Vocabulary of food quality assurance ..........................................1
1.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................1
1.2 Definitions and explanation of terms ........................................................2
1.3 Recognized experts in the quality field ..................................................25
References...............................................................................................................26
Chapter 2
Overview of food quality and food safety ................................ 27
2.1 Introduction .................................................................................................27
2.2 Scope of food quality and food safety ....................................................28
2.3 Responsibility for food quality and food safety ...................................28
2.4 The distinction between food quality and food safety ........................29
2.5 Food safety as part of food quality .........................................................29
2.6 Food quality .................................................................................................30
2.7 Systems and programs for food quality .................................................31
2.8 Food safety ...................................................................................................31
2.9 Systems and programs for food safety ....................................................31
2.10 Food laws and regulations ........................................................................32
2.11 Enforcement of food laws and regulations ............................................33
2.12 Food standards ............................................................................................33
2.13 Food quality, food safety, and good manufacturing practices
(GMPs)...........................................................................................................33
2.14 Food safety and hazards in foods ............................................................34
2.15 Food safety hazards and health risk ....................................................... 34
2.16 Biological hazards in foods .......................................................................35
2.16.1 Pathogenic bacteria ........................................................................35
2.16.2 Viruses ..............................................................................................35
2.16.3 Parasites ...........................................................................................35
2.17 Chemical hazards in foods ........................................................................36
2.17.1 Permitted food additives ...............................................................36
2.17.2 Naturally occurring harmful compounds .................................36
2.17.3 Unavoidable contaminants ...........................................................36
2.17.4 Agricultural residues .....................................................................37
2.17.5 Industrial contaminants ................................................................37
2.17.6 Chemical residues ..........................................................................37
2.17.7 Prohibited chemicals .....................................................................37
© 2004 by CRC Press LLC
2.17.8 Food allergens ................................................................................37
2.18 Physical hazards in foods ..........................................................................38
2.18.1 Broken glass ....................................................................................38
2.18.2 Plastic ...............................................................................................38
2.18.3 Metal pieces ....................................................................................39
2.18.4 Wood pieces ....................................................................................39
2.18.5 Stones ...............................................................................................39
2.18.6 Personal articles ..............................................................................39
2.19 Other food safety concerns .......................................................................39
References...............................................................................................................39
Chapter 3
Quality programs and quality systems for the food
industry ..................................................................................................................41
3.1 Introduction ................................................................................................. 41
3.2 The distinction between quality programs and quality systems .......41
3.3 Quality control programs ..........................................................................42
3.4 Quality assurance systems ........................................................................42
3.5 Quality management systems................................................................... 43
3.6 Total quality management .........................................................................43
3.7 Recognition programs and excellence models ......................................43
3.8 Quality system standards ..........................................................................44
3.9 The ISO 9000 quality system standards.................................................. 44
3.10 The evolution of the ISO 9000 quality system standards ....................45
3.11 ISO 9000:2000 quality management systems — fundamentals
and vocabulary ............................................................................................46
3.11.1 ISO 9000:2000 quality management principles .........................46
3.11.2 ISO 9000:2000 fundamentals of quality management
systems .............................................................................................47
3.12 ISO 9001:2000 quality management systems — requirements ...........49
3.13 ISO 9004:2000 quality management systems — guidelines for
performance improvements ......................................................................49
3.14 ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 9004:2000 standards ..........................................49
3.14.1 ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 9004:2000 clause 1 scope 54
3.14.1.1 ISO 9001 clause 1 scope.................................................. 54
3.14.1.2 ISO 9004 clause 1 scope.................................................. 54
3.14.2 ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 9004:2000 clause 2 normative
reference ...........................................................................................55
3.14.3 ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 9004:2000 clause 3 terms
and definitions ................................................................................55
3.14.4 ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 9004:2000 clause 4 quality
management system ......................................................................55
3.14.4.1 ISO 9001 clause 4.1 general requirements ...................55
3.14.4.2 ISO 9004 clause 4.1 managing systems
and processes ..................................................................56
3.14.4.3 ISO 9001 clause 4.2 documentation
requirements.....................................................................56
© 2004 by CRC Press LLC
3.14.4.4 ISO 9004 clause 4.2 documentation ..............................60
3.14.4.5 ISO 9004 clause 4.3 use of quality management
principles .........................................................................60
3.14.5 ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 9004:2000 clause 5 management
responsibility ...................................................................................60
3.14.5.1 ISO 9001 clause 5.1 management commitment ..........60
3.14.5.2 ISO 9004 clause 5.1 general guidance ..........................61
3.14.5.3 ISO 9001 clause 5.2 customer focus .............................62
3.14.5.4 ISO 9004 clause 5.2 needs and expectations of
interested parties ............................................................62
3.14.5.5 ISO 9001 clause 5.3 quality policy ................................63
3.14.5.6 ISO 9004 clause 5.3 quality policy ................................63
3.14.5.7 IS0 9001 clause 5.4 planning ..........................................63
3.14.5.8 ISO 9004 clause 5.4 planning .........................................64
3.14.5.9 ISO 9001 clause 5.5 responsibility, authority
and communication .......................................................64
3.14.5.10 ISO 9004 clause 5.5 responsibility, authority
and communication ......................................................65
3.15.5.11 ISO 9001 clause 5.6 management review ..................65
3.14.5.12 ISO 9004 clause 5.6 management review ..................66
3.14.6 ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 9004:2000 clause 6 resource
management ....................................................................................66
3.14.6.1 ISO 9001 clause 6.1 provision of resources ................. 67
3.14.6.2 ISO 9004 clause 6.1 general guidance ..........................67
3.14.6.3 ISO 9001 clause 6.2 human resources ..........................67
3.14.6.4 ISO 9004 clause 6.2 people ............................................68
3.14.6.5 ISO 9001:2000 clause 6.3 infrastructure .......................68
3.14.6.6 ISO 9004:2000 clause 6.3 infrastructure .......................68
3.14.6.7 ISO 9001:2000 clause 6.4 work environment .............. 69
3.14.6.8 ISO 9004:2000 clause 6.4 work environment ..............69
3.14.6.9 ISO 9004 clause 6.5 information ...................................69
3.14.6.10 ISO 9004 clause 6.6 suppliers and partnerships ......69
3.14.6.11 ISO 9004 clause 6.7 natural resources ........................69
3.14.6.12 ISO 9004 clause 6.8 financial resources .....................70
3.14.7 ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 9004:2000 clause 7 product
realization ........................................................................................70
3.14.7.1 ISO 9001 clause 7.1 planning of product
realization ........................................................................70
3.14.7.2 ISO 9004 clause 7.1 general guidance .......................... 71
3.14.7.3 ISO 9001 clause 7.2 customer-related processes .........72
3.14.7.4 ISO 9004 clause 7.2 processes related to interested
parties ...............................................................................73
3.14.7.5 ISO 9001 clause 7.3 design and development ............73
3.14.7.6 ISO 9004 clause 7.3 design and development ............75
3.14.7.7 ISO 9001 clause 7.4 purchasing .....................................76
3.14.7.8 ISO 9004 clause 7.4 purchasing .....................................77
© 2004 by CRC Press LLC
3.14.7.9 ISO 9001 clause 7.5 product and service
provision ..........................................................................77
3.14.7.10 ISO 9004 clause 7.5 production and service
operations .......................................................................79
3.14.7.11 ISO 9001 clause 7.6 control of monitoring and
measuring devices .........................................................79
3.14.7.12 ISO 9004 clause 7.6 control of measuring and
monitoring devices .......................................................80
3.14.8 ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 9004:2000 clause 8 measurement,
analysis, and improvement ..........................................................80
3.14.8.1 ISO 9001 clause 8.1 general ...........................................80
3.14.8.2 ISO 9004 clause 8.1 general guidance .......................... 80
3.14.8.3 ISO 9001 clause 8.2 monitoring
and measurement ...........................................................81
3.14.8.4 ISO 9004 clause 8.2 measurement
and monitoring ...............................................................82
3.14.8.5 ISO 9001 clause 8.3 control of nonconforming
product .............................................................................83
3.14.8.6 ISO 9004 clause 8.3 control of nonconformity.............84
3.14.8.7 ISO 9001 clause 8.4 analysis of data ............................84
3.14.8.8 ISO 9004 clause 8.4 analysis of data ............................84
3.14.8.9 ISO 9001 clause 8.5 improvement ................................85
3.14.8.10 ISO 9004 clause 8.5 Improvement ..............................85
References...............................................................................................................86
Chapter 4
GMPs and HACCP prerequisite programs ...............................87
4.1 Introduction .................................................................................................87
4.2 GMPs and government regulations ........................................................87
4.3 GMPs as business practice in the food industry ...................................88
4.4 GMPs and HACCP prerequisite programs ............................................90
4.5 Activities covered by GMPs and HACCP prerequisite
programs ......................................................................................................90
4.6 GMPs, HACCP prerequisite programs, HACCP systems,
and quality systems ....................................................................................92
4.7 Development and implementation of GMPs and HACCP
prerequisite programs ................................................................................93
4.8 HACCP prerequisite program premises and facilities .........................94
4.8.1 Location ...........................................................................................94
4.8.2 Grounds ...........................................................................................94
4.8.3 Building exterior ............................................................................95
4.8.4 Building interior .............................................................................95
4.8.5 Access to premises ......................................................................... 97
4.8.6 Employee facilities .........................................................................98
4.8.7 Cleaning and sanitizing facilities ................................................98
4.8.8 Storage facilities...............................................................................99
© 2004 by CRC Press LLC
4.8.9 Waste collection and storage facilities ........................................99
4.8.10 Water ................................................................................................99
4.8.11 Ice and steam ................................................................................100
4.9 HACCP prerequisite program personnel training, hygiene
and practices ..............................................................................................100
4.9.1 Personnel training ........................................................................100
4.9.2 Personnel practices ......................................................................102
4.9.3 Illness and injuries .......................................................................103
4.9.4 Visitors and noncompany personnel ........................................103
4.10 HACCP prerequisite program sanitation and cleaning .....................103
4.10.1 Sanitation and cleaning program ..............................................104
4.10.2 Equipment cleaning and sanitizing ..........................................105
4.10.3 Master cleaning schedule ...........................................................105
4.10.4 Cleaning and sanitizing chemicals ...........................................106
4.10.5 Cleaning tools and equipment ..................................................106
4.10.6 Cleaning area ................................................................................106
4.10.7 Cleaning and sanitizing personnel ...........................................106
4.10.8 Effectiveness of cleaning and sanitizing ..................................106
4.10.9 Sanitation and cleaning records ................................................107
4.11 HACCP prerequisite program pest control ..........................................107
4.11.1 Pest control program ...................................................................107
4.11.2 Pest control personnel .................................................................108
4.11.3 Pest control chemicals .................................................................108
4.11.4 Monitoring for effectiveness ......................................................109
4.11.5 Pest control records .....................................................................109
4.12 HACCP prerequisite program equipment ...........................................109
4.12.1 Processing equipment ................................................................. 110
4.12.2 Handling equipment ................................................................... 111
4.12.3 Storage equipment ....................................................................... 111
4.12.4 Monitoring and measuring equipment .................................... 111
4.13 HACCP prerequisite program transportation, receiving, storage,
and shipping .............................................................................................. 112
4.13.1 Transportation and receiving ..................................................... 113
4.13.2 Handling and storage .................................................................. 114
4.13.3 Transportation/shipping ............................................................ 115
4.14 HACCP prerequisite program traceability and recall ........................ 115
4.14.1 Identification ................................................................................. 116
4.14.2 Traceability .................................................................................... 116
4.14.3 Recall procedure ........................................................................... 117
4.15 HACCP prerequisite program chemical control ................................. 118
4.16 Other HACCP prerequisite programs ................................................... 118
4.17 Production and process control .............................................................. 118
4.18 Monitoring of GMPs and prerequisite programs ............................... 118
References............................................................................................................. 119
Chapter 5
The HACCP system for food safety .........................................121
© 2004 by CRC Press LLC
5.1 Introduction ...............................................................................................121
5.2 Evolution of the HACCP system ...........................................................121
5.2.1 Origin of HACCP .........................................................................122
5.2.2 The HACCP system for consumer foods .................................122
5.2.3 Recognition of the HACCP system ...........................................122
5.2.4 International recognition of the HACCP system ....................122
5.2.5 Use of HACCP in government regulations .............................123
5.3 The seven HACCP principles .................................................................123
5.4 The HACCP system and HACCP plans ...............................................124
5.5 Development and implementation of an HACCP plan .....................124
5.6 The Codex Alimentarius Logic Sequence for the Application
of HACCP ..................................................................................................124
5.6.1 Step 1 — assemble an HACCP team ........................................125
5.6.2 Step 2 — describe the food product which the HACCP plan
will address ...................................................................................126
5.6.3 Step 3 — identify the intended use of the product ...............127
5.6.4 Step 4 — construct a process flow diagram for the
product ...........................................................................................127
5.6.5 Step 5 — verification of the process flow diagram ................128
5.6.6 Step 6 — conduct a hazard analysis (HACCP
Principle 1) ....................................................................................129
5.6.6.1 Hazard identification ....................................................129
5.6.6.2 Hazard evaluation .........................................................130
5.6.6.3 Identification of control measures ..............................131
5.6.7 Step 7 — determine the critical control points (HACCP
Principle 2) ....................................................................................131
5.6.8 Step 8 — establish critical limits for each CCP (HACCP
Principle 3) ....................................................................................132
5.6.9 Step 9 — establish monitoring procedures for each CCP
(HACCP Principle 4) ...................................................................133
5.6.10 Step 10 — establish corrective action procedures for each
CCP (HACCP Principle 5) ..........................................................135
5.6.11 Step 11 — establish verification procedures for each CCP
and for the entire HACCP plan (HACCP Principle 6) ..........136
5.6.12 Step 12 — establish record-keeping and documentation
procedures for the HACCP plan and the HACCP system
(HACCP Principle 7) ...................................................................138
5.7 Maintenance of the HACCP system ......................................................140
References.............................................................................................................140

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